Gene expression studies

Enhancement in the activity of heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 47, lysyl oxidase (LOX), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) was observed through in vitro gene expression studies. These genes regulate collagen repair, matrix remodeling, processing of pro-collagen and inhibition of collagenase and elastase respectively.

Improvement in collagen repair

Processing of procollagen by Olepent®

Improvement in matrix remodelling

Improvement in the TIMP-1 expression with Olepent®

Effect of Olepent® on gene expression
GenesProperty of the geneOlepent® vs. Control
HSP90Collagen repairSignificant enhancement
LOX (Lysyl oxidase)Matrix remodelingSignificant enhancement
HSP47Processing of pro-collagenModerate enhancement
TIMP-1Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinasesModerate enhancement

Olepent® tested on array of different genes
GenesGene nameFold increaseGene function 
CDSNCorneodesmosin1.78Barrier function  
CLDN7Claudin71.69Barrier function  
FLGFilaggrin2.23Barrier function  Improves barrier function
LCE3DLate cornified envelope 3D1.61Barrier function  
LORLoricrin1.63Barrier/ Keratinocyte differentiation  
ITGβ4Integrin, β41.76Cell adhesion/ Barrier function  
PPARDPeroxisome proliferator activated receptor1.59Cell cycle/ Cell proliferation  Increases keratinocyte proliferation
TP63Tumor protein p631.56Cell cycle/ Cell proliferation  
MKI67Antigen identified by Ki-67 antibody1.83Cell proliferation  
KLK5Kallikrein-related peptidase 52.44Desquamation/ Extracellular matrix  
TGFβ1Transforming growth factor, β11.72Extracellular matrix/ Collagen  Increases TGF β, enhancing collagen
DSG3Desmoglein 32.19Extracellular matrix/ Cell adhesion  
AQP5Aquaporin 51.97Hydration  Improves hydration
CALML5Calmodulin-like 51.91Keratinocyte differentiation  
BMP2Bone morphogenetic protein 21.80Whitening/ Melanogenesis  Enhances skin whitening