Gene expression studies

Enhancement in the activity of heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 47, lysyl oxidase (LOX), and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) was observed through in vitro gene expression studies. These genes regulate collagen repair, matrix remodeling, processing of pro-collagen and inhibition of collagenase and elastase respectively.

Improvement in collagen repair

Processing of procollagen by Olepent®

Improvement in matrix remodelling

Improvement in the TIMP-1 expression with Olepent®

Effect of Olepent® on gene expression
Genes Property of the gene Olepent® vs. Control
HSP90 Collagen repair Significant enhancement
LOX (Lysyl oxidase) Matrix remodeling Significant enhancement
HSP47 Processing of pro-collagen Moderate enhancement
TIMP-1 Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases Moderate enhancement

Olepent® tested on array of different genes
Genes Gene name Fold increase Gene function  
CDSN Corneodesmosin 1.78 Barrier function    
CLDN7 Claudin7 1.69 Barrier function    
FLG Filaggrin 2.23 Barrier function   Improves barrier function
LCE3D Late cornified envelope 3D 1.61 Barrier function    
LOR Loricrin 1.63 Barrier/ Keratinocyte differentiation    
ITGβ4 Integrin, β4 1.76 Cell adhesion/ Barrier function    
PPARD Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor 1.59 Cell cycle/ Cell proliferation   Increases keratinocyte proliferation
TP63 Tumor protein p63 1.56 Cell cycle/ Cell proliferation    
MKI67 Antigen identified by Ki-67 antibody 1.83 Cell proliferation    
KLK5 Kallikrein-related peptidase 5 2.44 Desquamation/ Extracellular matrix    
TGFβ1 Transforming growth factor, β1 1.72 Extracellular matrix/ Collagen   Increases TGF β, enhancing collagen
DSG3 Desmoglein 3 2.19 Extracellular matrix/ Cell adhesion    
AQP5 Aquaporin 5 1.97 Hydration   Improves hydration
CALML5 Calmodulin-like 5 1.91 Keratinocyte differentiation    
BMP2 Bone morphogenetic protein 2 1.80 Whitening/ Melanogenesis   Enhances skin whitening